Little known things about wind energy

Wind is abundant, green and clean energy for the environment. For centuries, people have known how to take advantage of the wind to produce and generate electricity.

However, there are some interesting things that we may not know about this type of energy.

1. Wind is one of the oldest forms of energy

From 5,000 BC, the effects of wind have been known in sailing. Sailors were the first to find an easier way to navigate the sea, laying the groundwork for human understanding of important concepts like dynamics and lift. Starting with the winged mill, these principles became the key to the next innovation, opening the revolution to automating time-consuming activities in agriculture.

Practical applications of wind were also found in the ninth century in Iran (as described by Abu Ishaq al-Istakhri). It is also a large form of pinwheels with propellers with a cloth-covered structure and a transmission system with ropes, pulleys used to move large stones in construction or to transfer water from lower to higher. Rough engines in pinwheel formations in India and Iran have vertical rotating shafts, and horizontal rotating discs.

2. MW of wind energy reduces 2,600 tons of CO2

According to information from the US Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), wind power is of interest because 1MW of wind power produced will help reduce about 2,600 tons of CO2 emissions into the environment. The fact that the less fossil fuel is consumed, the less CO2 it emits and the lower its CO2 emissions, which is now the standard for monitoring the progress of adopting alternative forms of energy.

A typical example is in Massachusetts (USA), in 2004, on average each citizen of this state emitted 4.5 tons of CO2 from using electricity. Meanwhile, only 1 MW of wind power can supply about 400 houses without emitting any CO2. Besides reducing CO2 emissions, wind power also brings more benefits than hydroelectricity, 1MW of wind power will save about 1,293 million liters of water.

3. Actual wind energy is solar

The source of this endless green energy is from the sun. Sunlight warms our planet, but because the Earth is constantly moving, the surface of the Earth is not even, making the temperature different from place to place.

The difference in temperature causes abnormalities in atmospheric pressure; gas molecules will move from the high pressure area to the low pressure area, forming the wind. The intensity, blowing time and wind direction are influenced by a number of factors such as weather, vegetation, water surface and topography.

All of these volatile factors make the wind unpredictable and become one of the reasons for the concern that wind is never stable enough to provide for human energy needs. The most predictable winds blow around the coast, increasing the cost of building wind farms.

4. Wind power does not pose a threat to birds

One of the main concerns of the opposition to wind power is the danger of wind turbines to wildlife, especially birds. However, despite its enormous size and dangerous speed, the wind turbines do not affect the wildlife, or flight paths of birds. Research by the National Academy of Sciences in the United States confirmed that the number of birds killed by wind farms accounts for only a negligible proportion of the total number of birds killed by humans.

5. World wind power output increased 4 times from 2000 to 2006

Wind power output increased rapidly from 2000 to 2006. Even in the year of global economic downturn in 2009, the wind power industry still developed strongly. This year alone, world wind power production has increased to 158,000 MW. Wind power is now able to meet the electricity needs of 250 million people and more than 70 countries already have wind farms.

According to a UN report, switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy (not just wind) requires more than $ 12 trillion. This commitment is not easy to implement in the next two decades, especially when traditional materials are still relatively cheap. Therefore, to maintain growth from 2000 to 2006, governments need more incentives to encourage wind power development.

The pros and cons of wind energy (Part 1)

All renewable energy sources are generated by heat generated by solar radiation. Wind is also a phenomenon caused by global warming of the atmosphere.

Sunlight on the surface of the earth unevenly makes the atmosphere, water and air unevenly heated. As a result, the hot air will move up, the cold air will go down. The change in position between hot air and cold air will form wind.

Tiềm năng phát triển điện gió

Wind is a renewable source of energy and its use does not produce toxic substances such as fossil fuels. This is one of the most effective forms of energy, it can become one of the main energy sources for future generations. Although wind energy has many advantages, it also has its own limitations.

Part 1: Advantages

1. Wind energy is a renewable energy source, while coal and wood are non-renewable energy sources. One thing is certain, wind energy will always exist. If greater efforts are made to bring wind energy into exploitation, it will reduce the use of non-renewable sources, which exploiting these sources will adversely affect the next generation.

Ưu điểm của năng lượng gió đối với người sử dụng | luster.vn

2. Global warming is one of the biggest challenges for all humanity. According to published reports on this issue, an urgent need is to reduce emissions of pollutants in the Earth’s atmosphere. Wind energy is a great alternative to our energy needs, because it is not as polluting as large as fossil fuels.

3. A large area of ​​land may need to be cleared to build a power plant. But with a wind power plant, you only need a small area to build. After installing turbines, the area can still be used for farming or other agricultural activities.

4. One of the biggest advantages of wind energy compared to other renewable energy sources is the cost effectiveness. There are no costs associated with buying and transporting fuel into wind turbines, such as coal-fired power plants. In addition, with advances in technology, wind power will become cheaper, thereby reducing the amount of capital that countries have to spend to meet energy needs.

5. Developing countries lack the infrastructure necessary to build a power plant, which could benefit from this source of energy. The cost of installing a wind turbine is lower than that of a coal power plant, countries that do not have a lot of funding, can choose to use the option with high cost efficiency while still meeting the power demand.

Effective Ways to Stop Using Single-Use Plastic (part 1)

The proliferation of single-use plastic all over the world is accelerating climate change and should be urgently halted. It is clearly proved that plastic contributes to greenhouse gas emissions at all stages of its lifecycle, from its production to its refining to the way it is a waste product. Therefore, we all need urgent action to stem production and flow of single-use plastic. There are a lot of effective ways to stop using single-use plastic to protect the environment.

1. Use Reusable Bags

There are too many plastic bags that end up in our oceans and marine life is becoming endangered and even dying because of them. We hope that plastic bags will be eliminated all together as soon as possible. Consider bringing reusable bags with you, keeping them in your purse, car, house and office. Some grocery stores offer quicker check out lines for customers who bring their own reusable bags. There’s no need to put your tomatoes in a separate bag from your avocados.

2. Use Reusable Straws, Say NO to Plastic Straws

Not using plastic straws is a very simple and small change that you can contribute to make a difference. If you really need a straw in a certain case, use reusable metal straws, or paper straws instead of plastic straws. There are metal straws that are sold in packs, so you can keep one in your purse and leave the others at home, car, and office.

3. Use Reusable Water Bottles

Plastic water bottles are a threat to our oceans and the Amazon Rainforest. Moreover, drinking from single-use plastic water bottles is also very toxic and harmful for our health. There is multiple choices of reusable water bottles in various shapes and sizes and there is no reason for you to keep using plastic water bottles.

4. Ice Cream Cones Instead of Cups

Make sure to choose cones instead of cups when going out for ice cream. Ice cream cups are a unnecessary use of plastic that takes years to fully decompose.

Different Sources of Alternative Energy (part 3)

 

  1. Biofuels

Contrasting to biomass energy sources, biofuels make use of plant and animal life to create energy. They are fuels which can be obtained from some form of organic matter. They are renewable if plants are used because these can be regrown on a yearly basis. However, they require dedicated machinery for extraction, contributing to increased emissions even if biofuels themselves don’t. Biofuels are being adopted more and more, particularly in the United States.

  1. Wave Energy 

Once again, water proves itself to be a valuable contributor to alternative energy sources with wave energy converters. They hold an advantage over tidal energy sources as they can be placed in the ocean in different situations and locations. It has enormous potential when used properly and is more reliable than many other forms of alternative energy. However, the cost of these systems is a major factor to slow uptake.

  1. Hydroelectric Energy

Hydroelectric methods are among the earliest means of creating energy, although their use has declined with the rise of fossil fuels. However, they still account for about seven percent of the energy produced in the United States.

Hydroelectric energy brings a number of benefits. It is also a renewable energy source that doesn’t create pollution. Moreover, it offers some secondary benefits which are not immediately apparent. Generating hydroelectric power also uses the dams that contribute to flood control and irrigation techniques.

  1. Solar Power

Ssolar power is an typical example of alternative energy sources. After having been evolved massively over the years, it is now used for large-scale power generation and energy production for single homes. Many countries have introduced initiatives to promote solar power. Solar power source is totally renewable and the costs of installation are outweighed by the money that is saved in bills from traditional suppliers.

However, solar cells are prone to deterioration over long periods of time and are not so effective in unideal weather conditions.

Tips for Hosting an Eco-Friendly Sporting Event (part 1)

Although there are various models, approaches, and certification systems, the most important elements of an eco-friendly event are reducing carbon emissions and energy use, conserving water, minimizing waste headed to a landfill and maximizing recycling opportunities, building a positive legacy within the community, providing access to all, and supporting local businesses.

So, what does an eco-friendly sporting event look like? How does it work? Let’s consider the following tips for hosting an eco-friendly sporting event.

Green Basics: A Little League tournament or a local high-school football game are great ways to begin cultivating new sustainable options and discovering local green resources. There are a lot of simple things that sports planners can do to produce more eco-friendly events. The first step is to call for agreement from your board, organization, and/or stakeholders so that your efforts are supported by the overall event management system.

Rethink Waste: Find effective ways to reduce or eliminate plastic, paper, and packaging waste. One of the easiest ways with the greatestt impact is to default to double-sided printing and use recycled paper in printers and copiers as much as possible. You can go further by opting to replace programs, flyers, and paper tickets with social media, Web sites, electronic ticketing, and even mobile applications. Choose recycled or biodegradable materials for items such as lanyards, T-shirts, and food service-ware. Provide water stations for fans to serve condiments in bulk and fill reusable water bottles in order to reduce individual packaging waste. Place clearly marked recycling bins in easily visible and convenient locations throughout the sports venue.

Reduce Emissions: Transportation and energy use are the two major sources of greenhouse gas emissions for most sporting events. Utilities across the country can be approached as a sustainable sponsor and offer renewable power options for customers. In addition to dercreasing overall carbon emissions, utilizing mass transit can help reduce local traffic congestion. Use low-carbon fuels like biodiesel, hybrid, ethanol, or all electric vehicles whenever possible. Moreover, offering corral parking or bike valet also encourages more bicycling to the event.

Different Sources of Alternative Energy (part 2)

  1. Biomass Energy

Biomass energy comes in various forms. Burning wood has been used to create heat for thousands of years, but recent advancements have also seen waste.

The generated heat of burning wood can be the same as that of a central heating system. Moreover, the involved costs tend to be lower and the amount of released carbon by this kind of fuel is lower than the amount released by fossil fuels.

However, there are some issues that you need to consider installing these systems in your home, including maintenance and permission from a local authority.

  1. Wind Energy

Wind energy has become more and more popular in recent years. It offers some benefits that are the same as many other alternative fuel sources. For example, it generates no waste and makes use of a renewable source.

Wind energy installs power in about twenty million houses in the United States each year and this number is growing. Nowadays, most states in the US have some form of wind energy set-up that continues to grow.

Unfortunately, this energy generation form also presents some challenges, including wind turbines restricting views and being dangerous to some forms of wildlife.

  1. Geothermal Power

Basically, geothermal power means extracting energy from the ground around us. Nowadays, it is growing more and more popular. The World Bank estimates that about 40 countries can almost meet their power demands using geothermal power.

This power source does little to disrupt the land and has massive potential. However, due to its high costs, there is slower adoption of  geothermal power plants than expected for a fuel source with so much promise.

  1. Natural Gas

Although natural gas sources have been used for some decades, it is through the progression of compression techniques to become a more viable alternative energy source. Particularly, it is being used in cars in order to reduce carbon emissions.

Demand for natural gas has been increasing, however, it comes with some issues, including emitting greenhouse gases.

Different Sources of Alternative Energy (part 1)

 

The issues that surround the use of fossil fuels, especially in case of climate change, were considered earlier than we think. In 1896, Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish scientist, was the first person stating that the use of fossil fuel could contribute to global warming.

This issue has become a hot topic for the last few decades. Nowadays, there is a general shift towards environmental awareness while the sources of energy are coming under closer scrutiny. Therefore, a number of alternative energy sources have risen and contributed something positive when being compared to fossil fuels. Lower emissions, lower prices, and the reduction of pollution are all advantages which the use of alternative energy can provide.

Here we write down the list of the most prominent alternative energy sources as well as the benefits they offer and potential for increased uptake in the near future.

  1. Hydrogen Gas

Hydrogen is completely clean burning fuel, unlike any other form of natural gas. Hydrogen gas cells emit only warm air and water vapor when in use.

However, it is mostly derived from the use of fossil fuels and natural gas. Therefore, it can be argued that the emissions which are created to extract hydrogen gas counteract the benefits of its use.

Although the process of electrolysis, essential when splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, makes this less of a problem, electrolysis can still rank below the previous methods for extracting hydrogen, despite the fact that research continues to make it more efficient.

  1. Tidal Energy

Tidal energy uses the water power to generate energy, much like with the hydroelectric method. However, in many cases, its application has more in common with wind turbines.

The potential of this fairly new technology is enormous. A recent report in the UK estimated that tidal energy could meet up to 20% of the current electricity demands of this country.

The use of Tidal Stream Generators is the most popular form of tidal energy generation. These use the ocean’s kinetic energy to power turbines, without producing any waste of fossil fuels.

Greywater Reuse: Types of Simple Systems

 

  1. From the Washing Machine

Typically, the washing machine is the easiest source of greywater to reuse because its greywater can be easily diverted without cutting into existing plumbing. Each washing machine has an internal pump which automatically pumps out the water. You can use that to pump the greywater directly to your plants.

  • Laundry Drum:

If you don’t want to spend much money on the system or have many hardscapes (patio/concrete) between your house and the area to irrigate, you should use a laundry drum system.

Washing water is pumped into a “drum,” temporary storage or a large barrel called a surge tank. The water at the bottom of the drum drains out into a hose which is moved around the yard to irrigate. This is the easiest and cheapest system to install, however, requires constant moving of the hose for the system to be effective at irrigating.

  • Laundry-to-Landscape:

If you’re looking for a system which takes very little maintenance and gives you flexibility in the plants you’re able to irrigate, you should use the laundry-to-landscape system invented by Art Ludwig.

This system doesn’t alter the household plumbing: the washing machine drain hose is directly attached to a diverter valve which switches the flow of greywater between the septic/sewer and the greywater irrigation system. This system is easy to install, low cost and gives flexibility for irrigation. Commonly, this is the perfect choice to start when choosing a greywater system.

  1. From the Shower:

The shower usually produces a lot of relatively clean water and is also a great source of greywater. To have a simple but effective shower system, you should use a gravity-based system without a pump. If your yard is located uphill from the house, you’ll need a pumped system.

  • Branched Drain: This system was also invented by Art Ludwig. In this system, the water is divided into smaller and smaller quantities by using a plumbing fitting which splits the flow. Each branch’s final outlet flows into a mulched basin. Branched drain systems require time to install, but once finished, they require only little maintenance and work well for the long term.

 

Sports & Recreational Activities Damaging to the Environment

 

Off-Road Vehicles

For many backcountry hikers, cross-country skiers, and bird-watchers aggravation is spelled “ORV”. Off-road vehicles crush vegetation, shatter the wilderness silence, leave rutted trails, terrify wildlife, and cause erosion. The number of high-octane thrill-seekers which are blazing their trails in four-wheel-drive trucks and cars is increasing day by day along with dune and swamp buggies, snowmobiles, motorcycles, and fat-tired tricycles, all of which are called all-terrain cycles (ATCs). Sales of these ATCs have risen dramatically.

Current Regulations

There are a number of Executive Orders which govern off-road vehicle use on BLM lands and National Forests. Executive Orders 11644 (signed by President Nixon in 1972) and 11989  (by President Carter in 1977) were issued to “ensure that the use of off-road vehicles on public lands will be controlled and directed so as to protect the resources of those lands, to promote the safety of all users of those lands, and to minimize conflicts among the various uses of those lands.”

These Orders require the agencies to monitor the effects of off-road vehicle use and to immediately close the trails or areas to off-road vehicle activities if their use is determined “will cause or is causing considerable adverse effects on the soil, vegetation, wildlife, wildlife habitat or cultural or historic resources of particular areas or trails of the public lands.” Executive Orders 11989 also authorized the federal agencies to adopt a policy which closed all areas to off-road vehicle use unless specifically designated open.

The Solution

It is necessary to place reasonable limits on off-road vehicles use which can make enormous impacts on public lands. There are four regulations to manage off-road vehicles:

  • Limit off-road vehicle use to designated trails and roads; prohibit cross country travel.
  • Designate off-road vehicle routes only where the use of a route will not cause negative environmental impacts.
  • Prohibit off-road vehicle use unless enforcement and monitoring are fully funded and implemented.
  • Prohibit off-road vehicle use in proposed roadless areas and wilderness areas.

About Greywater Reuse

 

Greywater is gently used water from your showers, tubs, bathroom sinks, and washing machines. It is not water which has come into contact with feces such as water from the toilet or from the washing diapers.

Greywater may contain traces of food, dirt, hair, grease, and certain household cleaning products. Although greywater may look dirty, it is a safe and beneficial source of irrigation water. Remember that if greywater is released into lakes, estuaries, or rivers, it becomes pollutants, but to plants, it is valuable fertilizer. Besides the obvious benefits of saving water and even money on your water bill, reusing greywater keeps it out of the septic or sewer system, thereby reducing the chance it pollutes the local water bodies. Reusing greywater for irrigation reconnects our backyard gardens and urban residents to the natural water cycle.

The most simple way to reuse greywater is to directly pipe it outside and use it to water fruit trees or ornamental plants. In addition, greywater can be used to irrigate vegetable plants because it doesn’t touch the edible parts of the plants. In each greywater system, it is necessary to use “plant-friendly” products, those without much boron, chlorine bleach, or salt. The build-up of boron and salt in the soil can damage plants.

Basic Greywater Guidelines

Greywater is different from fresh water so it requires the different guidelines to be reused.

  1. Don’t store greywater for more than 24 hours. If you store greywater, its nutrients will break down and create bad odors.
  2. Minimize contact with greywater. Greywater might contain a pathogen if the feces of an infected person got into the water, therefore, your system should be designed for the greywater to soak into the ground and not be available for either people or animals to drink.
  3. Keep your greywater system as simple as possible, avoid pumps and filters which need upkeep.
  4. Install a 3-way valve to easily switch between the system and the septic/sewer.
  5. Match the amount of greywater that your plants will receive from the system with their irrigation needs.